SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p 6.
"Fluoride-induced reproductive effects have been reported in experimental models and in humans. However, these effects were found in heavily exposed scenarios. Therefore, in this work our objective was to study reproductive parameters in a population exposed to fluoride at doses of 3-27 mg/day (high-fluoride-exposed group-HFEG). Urinary fluoride levels, semen parameters, and reproductive hormones in serum (LH, FSH, estradiol, prolactin, inhibin-B, free and total testosterone) were measured. Results were compared with a group of individuals exposed to fluoride at lower doses: 2-13 mg/day (low-fluoride-exposed group-LFEG). A significant increase in FSH (P<0.05) and a reduction of inhibin-B, free testosterone, and prolactin in serum (P<0.05) were noticed in the HFEG. When HFEG was compared to LFEG, a decreased sensitivity was found in the FSH response to inhibin-B (P<0.05). A significant negative partial correlation was observed between urinary fluoride and serum levels of inhibin-B (r=-0.333, P=0.028) in LFEG. Furthermore, a significant partial correlation was observed between a chronic exposure index for fluoride and the serum concentrations of inhibin-B (r=-0.163, P=0.037) in HFEG. No abnormalities were found in the semen parameters studied in the present work, neither in the HFEG, nor in the LFEG. The results obtained indicate that a fluoride exposure of 3-27 mg/day induces a subclinical reproductive effect that can be explained by a fluoride-induced toxic effect in both Sertoli cells and gonadotrophs."
SOURCE: Ortiz-Perez D, et al. (2003). Fluoride-induced disruption of reproductive hormones in men. Environmental Research 93:20-30.
"The first step in assessing a health risk by a substance to humans is the identification of its harmful effects on animals. A health risk to humans is assessed using results from human epidemiological studies in conjunction with results from animal studies. The Newburgh-Kingston Study (Schlesinger et al, 1956) showed an earlier age of first menarche in girls living in the fluoridated Newburgh than in unfluoridated Kingston. The current animal study indicates that fluoride is associated with an earlier onset of puberty in female gerbils. Furthermore, more research was recommended on the effects of fluoride on animal and human reproduction (USPHS, 1991). This project has contributed new knowledge in this area."
SOURCE: Luke J. (1997). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey, Guildford. p. 177.
"OBJECTIVE: The present study focuses on serum testosterone concentrations in patients with skeletal fluorosis, in order to assess the hormonal status in fluoride toxicity... RESULTS: Circulating serum testosterones in skeletal fluorosis patients were significantly lower than those of Control 1 at p < 0.01. Testosterone concentrations of Control 2 were also lower than those of Control 1 at p < 0.05 but were higher than those of the patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased testosterone concentrations in skeletal fluorosis patients and in males drinking the same water as the patients but with no clinical manifestations of the disease compared with those of normal, healthy males living in areas nonendemic for fluorosis suggest that fluoride toxicity may cause adverse effects in the reproductive system of males living in fluorosis endemic areas."
SOURCE: Susheela AK, Jethanandani P. (1996). Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients. Journal of Toxicology and Clinical Toxicology 34(2):183-9.
"A review of fluoride toxicity showed decreased fertility in most animal species studied. The current study was to see whether fluoride would also affect human birth rates. A U.S. database of drinking water systems was used to identify index counties with water systems reporting fluoride levels of at least 3 ppm. These and adjacent counties were grouped in 30 regions spread over 9 states... Most regions showed an association of decreasing TFR [Total Fertility Rate] with increasing fluoride levels. Meta-analysis of the region-specific results confirmed that the combined result was a negative TFR/fluoride association with a consensus combined p value of .0002-.0004, depending on the analytical scenario. There is no evidence that this outcome resulted from selection bias, inaccurate data, or improper analytical methods. However, the study is one that used population means rather than data on individual women. Whether or not the fluoride effect on the fertility rate found at the county level also applies to individual women remains to be investigated."
SOURCE: Freni SC. (1994). Exposure to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water is associated with decreased birth rates. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 42:109-121.
"There are no published reports in the literature on reproductive toxicity of fluoride in men. However, two Russian studies showed that chronic occupational exposure to fluoride-contaminated compounds might affect reproductive function. Men who had worked in the cryolite industry for 10-25 years and who demonstrated clinical skeletal fluorosis showed decreases in circulating testosterone and compensatory increases in follicle-stimulating hormone when compared with controls (Tokar and Savchenko, 1977). Of the exposed men, those exposed to cryolite for 16-25 years had increased luteinizing-hormone levels as compared with men exposed for 10-15 years. Women exposed occupationally to air heavily laden with superphosphates demonstrated increases in menstrual irregularities and genital irritations when compared with unexposed controls (Kuznetzova, 1969). However, occupational exposure to many other compounds in the cryolite and superphosphate industries makes it difficult to implicate any one substance, such as fluoride, in inducing these health effects. A recent study of women employed in silicon water manufacturing (fabrication room workers) showed a relative risk of spontaneous abortion of 1.45 times that of women (of the same ages) who worked in nonfabrication rooms (Schenker et al., 1992). The overall increase in risk ranged from about 20 to 40%. There was a dose-response relationship and a consistency of findings for persons exposed to on specific class of solvents. Spontaneous abortions were also associated with fluoride exposure but only in one work group, and a strong dose-response was not present. The authors characterized the fluoride-associated increase in relative risk of spontaneous abortions as 'less consistent' than the results of exposure to some solvents in this study and 'less consistent' with other research."
SOURCE: National Research Council. (1993). Health effects of ingested fluoride. Report of the Subcommittee on Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. p. 73-74.
High doses of fluoride have repeatedly been found to interfere with the reproductive system of animals. Commonly observed effects in fluoride-exposed animals include: oxidative stress, damaged sperm, reduced sperm count, and reduced fertility.
According to the authors of a recent study in the journal Reproductive Toxicology:
"We conclude that fluoride treatment is associated with testicular disorders, which may be due to induction of oxidative stress in reproductive organs along with possible adverse effects of fluoride on pituitary testicular axis.The detailed mechanism of fluoride treatment on the male reproductive system has not been elucidated and will be the subject of future experiments " (Ghosh et al 2002).
Research on possible reproductive effects in humans is limited. Some recent research, however, indicates that fluoride exposure (at lower doses than given to animals) can cause toxic effects to human Sertoli cells and gonadotrophs, reduction in circulating testosterone, and reductions in total fertility rate. The dose at which fluoride can begin to cause these effects is not yet known.
The Fluoride/Thyroid Connection
Updated April 27, 2006
Like many of our professional colleagues, we long held a belief that the practice of water fluoridation was highly beneficial and relatively low-risk. Currently, we feel otherwise. We are now convinced that it is of small benefit, and carries an unacceptably large risk.
What changed our thinking so dramatically on this important issue?
While reviewing medical studies for a new book, we were shocked to learn about the disturbing fluoride-thyroid connection.
We had been a prevention-oriented doctor-nurse team working together for twenty-five years. We had raised three children together, and had always viewed good dental care as an integral part of a complete health program. After training at Harvard and Walter Reed respectively, Rich worked at the National Institutes of Health and Karilee served as a nursing professor, before we each eventually settled into private practice.
Nothing on this path shook our faith in fluoride. In fact, it was not until we were working with a New York publisher that we really did our homework on this subject. The topic of our book, Thyroid Power (HarperCollins 2001), was the unexplained skyrocketing of thyroid disease and its spin-off epidemics of fatigue, depression, anxiety, infertility, and overweight.
While researching influences on the thyroid gland, we were astounded by the large number of fluoride citations. We were confronted with long lists of articles, from scientists around the world, reporting in medical journals about the harmful effects of fluoride.
We then did a review of the history of thyroid treatment, which showed that fluoride had previously been used by the medical profession to deliberately slow down overactive thyroid glands. It is no longer used for that purpose, only because now there are stronger anti-thyroid drugs [like Tapazole and PTU].
This surprising data was at first an unexpected challenge to our medical and nursing education. But then we recalled being taught that no substance has just one action on the human body. They all have multiple actions. Every medicine has a good action, called “the benefit,” and other less desirable actions called “side effects.”
In hindsight, it did seem odd that fluoridated water was the only substance ever discovered that had a great benefit with no side effects at all. Once we thought about it carefully, it also seemed curious that fluoride was the only medicine ever to be added to public drinking waters.
At this point, we felt compelled to investigate further. After reviewing hundreds of articles and books, it became clear that, regardless of any other benefits and side effects, fluoride could indeed be considered a “hormone disruptor.” These are a class of chemicals from many unrelated sources, that have the unintended consequence of altering the proper function of important hormones in the body, such as thyroid.
For example, in the Archives of Oral Biology (1982, Volume 27), Kleiner found that fluoride interfered with proper metabolism of cyclic-AMP and thus diminished cellular energy.
Next, a career university scientist showed us a large textbook about the mechanisms of fluoride tissue harm. Kenneth Kirk in his carefully written volume called Biochemistry of the Elemental Halogens and Inorganic Halides (Plenum Press NY, NY: 1991), described fluoride’s remarkable disruption of enzyme systems.
We then consulted with a toxicology expert, who explained still another harmful fluoride effect. It progressively disrupts the sensitive G-proteins. These are the building blocks of our body’s hormone receptors. (For example, receptors are where thyroid hormone actually starts doing its job at the cell level.)
But at what dilution did fluoride have this disruptive effect? At high concentrations, it is well known to be acutely poisonous and caustic. Could it be that at the low concentrations in municipal water, teeth are being helped without thyroids being harmed?
No, the data showed otherwise. Contradicting the hoped-for scenario is research going back half a century. For instance, we came across a 1958 study by Galletti and Joyet, published in the prestigious Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. The paper was titled, “Effect of Fluorine on Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism and Hyperthyroidism.” These scientists showed that fluoride in the range of 2-5 mg. per day (what people now ingest in a fluoridated area) was enough to slow down thyroid function.
The Fluoride and Infertility Connection
Where Do We Go From Here?
By Heidi M. Jost RN, CCP IKH, CH
Male and female infertility is increasing. The effects of fluoride on female and male fertility are and have been an area of growing concern. Our environment has become a fluoride dumping ground.
Fluoride is in our air (It is the number one pollutant.), water, soil, food, vitamins, toothpaste, medications, clothes, toys, carpets, furniture and non-stick cookware; Teflon, just to list some of the sources. Fluoride is an industrial waste-product from the pollution scrubbers of phosphate fertilizer plants, aluminum producing plants, etc. Fluoride has been added to the United States’ water supply for over 60 years now. Fluoride toxicity is linked to problems of infertility, endocrine disorders; i.e. hormonal imbalances, thyroid disorders and diseases and diabetes, neurological disorders and diseases, osteoporosis, arthritis, heart disease and cancer.
Without the necessary flow of all phases of our biological systems in relationship to each other, ovulation and sperm production become impaired. Reproduction of the species suffers in variant forms. (Actually, all species) Synchronicity of the flow of hormones needed to support development of a healthy follicle and healthy active sperm is essential for reproduction in its most optimal condition. The appropriate level of hormones is also needed for a normal menstrual cycle and normal healthy viable sperm. It has been noted that small amounts of exposure to sodium fluoride causes reproductive toxic effects.1-3 In males the reproductive toxic effects include increases in numbers of abnormal spermatozoa,2 loss of spermatogenesis,3 and interference with steroidogenesis.4 There is a dramatic increase in abnormal, mutated sperm which has been shown in many animal species as well as in humans.6
In Dr. Susheela’s experience consuming fluoride contaminated water and food has resulted in male infertility with abnormality in sperm morphology, oligospermia (deficiency of spermatozoa in the semen), azoospermia (absence of spermatozoa in the semen) and low testosterone levels.5 It is well established that in women, fluoride is known to cause ectopic calcification of arteries. 5 This results in repeated miscarriages and still births since the fetal arteries calcify arresting the growth of the fetus.5 Fluoride ingestion also leads to anemia in pregnancy and low birth weight babies.5
There is also documentation from Grand Rapids and Newburgh where the first fluoridation was done, and Racine, Wisconsin where they looked at mortality rates 5/10 years later. They found a large increase in stillborns (30%), infant death rate (38%) and neonatal death rate (61%). Within a four year period there was a 100% increase in congenital malformations! Also it is important to note on the topic of
fertility that the halogen, Bromine, was given to our soldiers to lower fertility in World War I. Bromine is presently in our public pools and the teenagers drink of choice, Mountain Dew! Fluoride binds to receptor sites, accumulates in the body and impedes our normal cellular functions. Fortunately, for the most part, fluoride toxicity is reversible.
To ensure fertility in its optimal healthy state you can become proactive and take the fluoride out of your life and those you love. The goal is to remove fluoride from all facets of our lives. The bulk of our fluoride exposure is in our water and in food processing.
To remove fluoride from our water there are distillers and filtering systems. Reverse osmosis removes about 1/3 of the fluoride levels. Distillization removes most. Be wary because some filtration systems do not remove any fluoride. Two good products for fluoride removal are Aquasana and Blue Rhino. If you have well water you should have no more than ½ ppm (parts per million) of fluoride in your water system. Trace amounts of natural fluorine are acceptable.
Activated alumina filters are available for your shower and bath water which remove fluoride. Though studies indicate that under desirable conditions there is no leaching of compounds from the activated alumina filters, I would still get the water tested since you don’t want any synthetic aluminum oxide leaching out since aluminum is neurotoxic.
Just be sure since our skin is our largest organ.
Make sure you are eating good organic food. We need mineral rich food! Know your food source or investigate it since some organic foods are being sprayed with cryolite (contains aluminum and fluoride); a synthetic poison that is acceptable by organic regulations. If you take medications investigate the composition to ensure that there is no fluoride compound present; i.e. birth control pills and Prozac contain fluoride. A study found that women on Prozac where less fertile than normal. If you are not obtaining all necessary daily vitamins and minerals from good food, supplement accordingly.
When you read fluoride studies take note on who sponsors the research. There is testing available on organic and inorganic substances www.galbraith.com (most consistent laboratory thus far with results).
Here are some websites of interest:
In the 17th and 18th centuries fluorine was nicknamed “The Devil’s Poison”.7 There is a direct correlation with infertility and fluoride in our world. The focus here is being healthier by removing the fluoride in your life. On behalf of this article I would state my phrase “Fluoride Free for Fertility!”
Heidi Marie Jost has been a registered nurse for 26 years and a certified clinical perfusionist for 18 years. She has 11 years of experience with the Arvigo Techniques of Maya Abdominal Massage and is a certified self-care Maya Abdominal Massage teacher. An integrated kabbalistic healer, Heidi graduated from A Society of Souls in June of 2002. She has 3 three years professional training and 4 years of graduate studies in advanced healing.
- Hoffman DJ, Pattee OH, Wiemeyer SN. Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings. Toxicol Lett 1985;26(1):19-24.
- Pati PC, Bhunya SP. Genotoxic effect of an environmental pollutant, sodium fluoride, in mammalian in vivo test system. Caryologia 1987;40:79-87.
- Kour K, Singh J. Histological finding of testes following fluoride ingestion. Fluoride 1980;13:160-2.
- Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ. Effect of fluoride on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Fluoride 1994;27:7-12
- Professor (Dr.)A. K.Susheela A Treatise On Fluorosis; 3rd Edition 2007
- Dr. R. L. Blaylock M.D., Why Fluoride is Toxic, The Blaylock Wellness Report, Sept. 2004, Vol. No. 4
- Dr. Dean Murphy DDS, The Devil’s Poison. Copyright 2008